The Health Consequences of Air Pollution

prepared by
Utah Physicians for a Healthy Environment
Updated March 18, 2014

1.  Pollution and the Cardiovascular System.

2.  Pollution and the Brain

3.  Pollution and Chromosomal and Fetal Development

4.  Pollution and the Lung

5.  Pollution and Birth Outcomes

6.  Pollution and Cancer

7.  Pollution and Miscellaneous Health Consequences

1.  Pollution and the Cardiovascular System


*The signature physiologic consequence of air pollution is the same as cigarette smoke: a low grade arterial inflammation, arteriolar narrowing, and vascular prothrombotic changes.  As with cigarette smoke the effect can be almost immediate and chronic exposure to even low concentrations of pollution are associated with an acceleration of atherosclerosis and significant arteriolar narrowing and stiffness.  Breathing more ozone in childhood increases arterial wall thickness in young adults

*Simultaneously high concentrations of multiple pollutants have a synergistic effecton hospitalizations for cardiac disease.

*Air pollution causes average blood pressure to increase within minutes.  All organs are affected.  Blood pressure rises are found in even in children.

*Rates of heart attacks and strokes increase with air pollution and are the primary cause for increased community mortality rates.  Those rates increase within hours after exposure and stay elevated for as long as 30 days after the exposure has ended.

*Particulate pollution concentrations typical of the Wasatch Front increase mortality rates about 10% according to the formula recommended by the American Heart Association published in May, 2010.   A subsequent study suggests that number should be 14%.  That means between 1,000 and 2,000 Utahns die prematurely every year due to our air pollution.

*Mortality plotted against air pollution concentrations shows no safe threshold, even at low levels, well below EPA national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS).  Furthermore this curve is not linear.  The steepest part of the curve is at low doses, i.e. small air pollution reductions have even greater public health benefit when the concentrations are already low.  A Dutch study demonstrated risks for cardiopulmonary mortality even at what are considered ‘background’ levels of particulate pollution.

*Air pollution impairs exercise capability, even in the very fittest of individuals.  Even in young, healthy adults air pollution increases biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis and increases blood pressure and heart rate. 



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2.  Pollution and the Brain


*  The systemic inflammation caused by air pollution also affects the brain

* Air pollution components reach the brain and can penetrate deeply into the parenchyma.

* Many of the compounds adsorbed to particulate matter are neurotoxic.

* Air pollution causes CNS oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, neuronal damage, neuronal loss, cortical stress measured by EEG, enhancement of Alzheimer type-abnormal filamentous proteins, BBB changes, and cerebrovascular damage.  Many of these changes can be found in children and young adults.

* Greater air pollution exposure is associated with lower intelligence, worse motor function, attention deficits and behavioral problems in children, decreased cognition in adults, higher rates of strokes, multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.


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43.   Calderón-Garcidueñas L, Mora-Tiscareño A, Styner M, Zhu H, Torres-Jardón R, Carlos E, Solorio-López E, Medina-Cortina H, Kavanaugh M, D’Angiulli A.  White Matter Hyperintensities, Systemic Inflammation, Brain Growth, and Cognitive Functions in Children Exposed to Air Pollution.  J Alzheimers Dis. 2012 Apr 18. [Epub ahead of print]

44.  Moulton PV, Yang W.  Air pollution, oxidative stress, and Alzheimer’s disease.  J Environ Public Health. 2012;2012:472751. Epub 2012 Mar 15.

45.  Bos I, De Boever P, Emmerechts J, Buekers J, Vanoirbeek J, Meeusen R, Van Poppel M, Nemery B, Nawrot T, Panis LI.  Changed gene expression in brains of mice exposed to traffic in a highway tunnel.  Inhal Toxicol. 2012 Aug;24(10):676-86.

46.  Boucher O, et al.   Prenatal Methylmercury, Postnatal Lead Exposure, and Evidence of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among Inuit Children in Arctic Québec.  Environ Health Perspect 120:0000–0000 (2012). [Online 21 September 2012]

47.  Volk H, Lurmann F, Penfold B, Hertz-Picciotto I, McConnell R.  Traffic-Related Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, and Autism.  Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012;():1-7. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.266.

48.  Chen R, Zhang Y, Yang C, Zhao Z, Xu X, Kan H.  Acute Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Stroke Mortality in the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study.Stroke. 2013 Feb 7. [Epub ahead of print]

49.  Allen, JL, K Conrad, G Oberdörster, CJ Johnston, B Sleezer and BA Cory-Slechta. 2013. Developmental exposure to concentration ambient particles and preferences for immediate reward in mice. Environmental Health Perspectives 121(1): 32-38

50.  Becerra T,   Wilhelm M, Olsen J, Cockburn M, Ritz B.   Ambient Air Pollution and Autism in Los Angeles County, California.  Environ Health Perspect 121:380–386 (2013). [Online 18 December 2012]

51.  Lucchini, RG, S Zoni, S Guazzetti, E Bontempi, S Micheletti, K Broberg, G Parrinello and DR Smith. 2012. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents. Environmental Research

52.  Newman N, Ryan P, LeMasters G, Levin L, Bernstein D, Khurana-Hershey GK, Lockey JE, Villareal M, Reponen T, Grinshpun S, Sucharew H, Dietrich KN.  Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at Seven Years of Age.   Environ Health Perspect (): .doi:10.1289/ehp.1205555

53. Roberts AL, et al. Perinatal Air Pollutant Exposures and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Children of Nurses’ Health Study II Participants. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2013 DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1206187

54. Chiu, YHM, DC Bellinger, BA Coull, S Anderson, R Barber, RO Wright and RJ Wright. 2013. Associations between traffic-related black carbon exposure and attention in a prospective birth cohort of urban children. Environmental Health Perspectives

55. Ljubimova JY, Kleinman MT, Karabalin NM, Inoue S, Konda B, Gangalum P, Markman JL, Ljubimov AV, Black KL. Gene expression changes in rat brain after short and long exposures to particulate matter in Los Angeles basin air: Comparison with human brain tumors. Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2013 May 17. pii: S0940-2993(13)00054-7. doi: 10.1016/j.etp.2013.04.002. [Epub ahead of print]

56. Davis DA, Bortolato M, Godar SC, Sander TK, Iwata N, Pakbin P, Shih JC, Berhane K, McConnell R, Sioutas C, Finch CE, Morgan TE. Prenatal exposure to urban air nanoparticles in mice causes altered neuronal differentiation and depression-like responses. PLoS One. 2013 May 29;8(5):e64128. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064128. Print 2013.

57. Jung CR, Lin YT, Hwang BF. Air Pollution and Newly Diagnostic Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Cohort Study in Taiwan. PLoS One. 2013 Sep 25;8(9):e75510.

58. Davis DA, Akopian G, Walsh JP, Sioutas C, Morgan TE, Finch CE. Urban air pollutants reduce synaptic function of CA1 neurons via an NMDA/NO· pathway in vitro. J Neurochem. 2013 Aug 8. doi: 10.1111/jnc.12395. [Epub ahead of print]

59. Ejaz S, Anwar K, Ashraf M. MRI and neuropathological validations of the involvement of air pollutants in cortical selective neuronal loss. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2013 Nov 15. [Epub ahead of print]

60. Chiu HF, Yang CY. Short-term effects of fine particulate air pollution on ischemic stroke occurrence: a case-crossover study. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013;76(21):1188-97. doi:10.1080/15287394.2013.842463.

61. Volk, H, Kerin T, Lurmann F, Hertz-Picciotto, I, McConnell R, Campbell D. Autism Spectrum Disorder: Interaction of Air Pollution with the MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Gene’, Epidemiology 14 November 2013 doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000030

62. Costa L, et al. Neurotoxicants Are in the Air: Convergence of Human, Animal, and In Vitro Studies on the Effects of Air Pollution on the Brain. BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 736385, 8 pages

63. Genc S, Zadeoglulari Z, Fuss SH, and Genc K, “The adverse effects of air pollution on the nervous system,” Journal of Toxicology, vol. 2012, Article ID 782462, 23 pages, 2012

64. Block ML, and Calderón-Garcidueñas L. “Air pollution: mechanisms of neuroinflammation and CNS disease,” Trends in Neurosciences, vol. 32, no. 9, pp. 506–516, 2009

65. Calderón-Garcidueñas L, Azzarelli B, Acuna H. “Air pollution and brain damage,” Toxicologic Pathology, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 373–389, 2002

66. Calderon-Garciduenas L, Cross JV, Franco-Lira M. “Brain immune interactions and air pollution: macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), prion cellular protein (PrPC), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and interleukin-2 (IL-2) in cerebrospinal fluid and MIF in serum differentiate urban children exposed to severe vs. low air pollution,” Frontiers in Neuroscience, vol. 7, article 183, 2013

67. Chen J-C, and Schwartz J, “Neurobehavioral effects of ambient air pollution on cognitive performance in US adults,” NeuroToxicology, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 231–239, 2009

68. Boucher O, et al. Domain-Specific Effects of Prenatal Exposure to PCBs, Mercury, and Lead on Infant Cognition: Results from the Environmental Contaminants and Child Development Study in Nunavik. Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1206323

69. Rzhetsky A, Bagley SC, Wang K, Lyttle CS, Cook EH Jr, et al. (2014) Environmental and State-Level Regulatory Factors Affect the Incidence of Autism and Intellectual Disability. PLoS Comput Biol 10(3): e1003518. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003518


3.  Pollution and  Chromosomal/Fetal Development 

* Pregnant women exposed to more air pollution give birth to babies with significantly more chromosomal aberrations and epigenetic changes which can be passed on to multiple subsequent generations.

 * Exposure even to brief episodes of pollution at critical stages in the development of the human embryo can cause a person to experience an increased likelihood of multiple chronic diseases including those of the heart, lungs, immune system and brain and even obesity, diabetes and cancer.

 * Air pollution breathed by a pregnant mother causes epigenetic changes in the womb, which is associated with higher rates of asthma and decreased lung function in those children 5 years later.

 * Exposure to intermittent air pollution is associated with sperm DNA damage and consequent increase in the rates of male infertility, miscarriages and other adverse reproductive outcomes.

 * Children living near petrochemical industries are exposed to high PAH levels, contributing to DNA damage.  Industrial pollution is even more genotoxic than traffic pollution.


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3.  Perera F, Tang W, Herbstman J.  Relation of DNA Methylation of 5-CpG Island of ACSL3 to Transplacental Exposure to Airborne PAH and Childhood Asthma..  PloS ONE.  Feb. 16, 2009.

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14.  Herr CE, Dostal M, Ghosh R, Ashwood P, Lipsett M, Pinkerton KE, Sram R, Hertz-Picciotto I.  Air pollution exposure during critical time periods in gestation and alterations in cord blood lymphocyte distribution: a cohort of livebirths.  Environ Health. 2010 Aug 2;9(1):46.

15.  Gonzalez-Pina, R. et al. (2008) Prenatal exposure to ozone disrupts cerebellar monoamine contents in newborn rats. Neurochem. Res. 33, 912–918

16.  Hoxha M,  Dioni L,  Bonzini M, et al.  Association between leukocyte telomere shortening and exposure to traffic pollution: a cross-sectional study on traffic officers and indoor office workers.  Environ Health. 2009; 8: 41.  Published online 2009 September 21. doi:  10.1186/1476-069X-8-41

17.  Perera FP 2008. Children Are Likely to Suffer Most from Our Fossil Fuel Addiction. Environ Health Perspect 116:987-990. doi:10.1289/ehp.11173

18. Rubesa J,  Rybara R, Prinosilovaa P, Veznika Z, et al.  Genetic polymorphisms influence the susceptibility of men to sperm DNA damage associated with exposure to air pollution.  Mutation Research 683 (2010) 9–15.

19.  Rubes J, Selevan S, Evenson D,  Zudova D, Vozdova M,  Zudova Z, Robbins W, Perreault S.  Episodic air pollution is associated with increased DNA fragmentation in human sperm without other changes in semen quality.  Human Reproduction Vol.20, No.10 pp. 2776–2783, 2005 doi:10.1093/humrep/dei122.  Advance Access publication June 24, 2005.

20. Zhong Y,  Carmella S,  Upadhyaya P, Hochalter JB, etal.   Immediate Consequences of Cigarette Smoking: Rapid Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Diol Epoxides  Chem. Res. Toxicol., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/tx100345x  Publication Date (Web): December 27, 2010

21.  Topinka J, Rossner P Jr, Milcova A, Schmuczerova J, Svecova V, Sram RJ.  DNA  Adducts and Oxidative DNA Damage Induced by Organic Extracts From PM2.5 in an Acellular Assay.  Toxicol Lett. 2011 Feb 14. [Epub ahead of print]

(Industrial PM2.5 is more genotoxic and causative of oxidative stress than traffic PM2.5)

22.  Madrigano J,  Baccarelli A,  Mittleman MA,  Wright RO,  Sparrow D,  Vokonas PS,  Tarantini  L, and  Schwartz J.  Prolonged exposure to particulate pollution, genes associated with glutathione pathways, and DNA methylation in a cohort of older men. Environmental Health Perspectives

23.  Oh SM, Park YR, Kim HR, Park YJ, Kim MJ, Son BH, Lee MJ, Lee SY, Chung KH.  Organic extracts of urban air pollution particulate matter (PM2.5)-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in human lung bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B cells).  Mutat Res. 2011 Apr 16. [Epub ahead of print]

24.  Han X, Zhou N, Cui Z, Ma M, Li L, Cai M, et al. 2011. Association between Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites and Sperm DNA Damage: A Population Study in Chongqing, China. Environ Health Perspect 119:652-657. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002340

25.  Gualtieri M, Ovrevik J, Mollerup S, Asare N, Longhin E, Dahlman HJ, Camatini M, Holme JA.  Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization.  Mutat Res. 2011 May 30. [Epub ahead of print]

26.  Oya E, Ovrevik J, Arlt VM, Nagy E, Phillips DH, Holme JA.  DNA damage and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following exposure to 2-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone: role in apoptosis.  Mutagenesis. 2011 Jun 29. [Epub ahead of print]

27.   Abbas I, Garçon G, Saint-Georges F, Andre V, Gosset P, Billet S, Goff JL, Verdin A, Mulliez P, Sichel F, Shirali P.  Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons within airborne particulate matter (PM(2.5) ) produced DNA bulky stable adducts in a human lung cell coculture model.  J Appl Toxicol. 2011 Sep 13. doi: 10.1002/jat.1722. [Epub ahead of print]

28.  Zhang A, Hu H, Sánchez BN, Ettinger AS, Park SK, Cantonwine D, et al. 2011. Association between Prenatal Lead Exposure and Blood Pressure in Female Offspring. Environ Health Perspect :-.

29.  Sánchez-Guerra M, Pelallo-Martínez N, Díaz-Barriga F, Rothenberg SJ, Hernández-Cadena L, Faugeron S, Oropeza-Hernández LF, Guaderrama-Díaz M, Quintanilla-Vega B.  Environmental polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and DNA damage in Mexican children.  Mutat Res. 2011 Dec 17. [Epub ahead of print]

30.  Bind MA, Baccarelli A, Zanobetti A, Tarantini L, Suh H, Vokonas P, Schwartz J.  Air Pollution and Markers of Coagulation, Inflammation, and Endothelial Function: Associations and Epigene-environment Interactions in an Elderly Cohort.  Epidemiology. 2012 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]

31.  Reddy P, Naidoo RN, Robins TG, Mentz G, Li H, London SJ, Batterman S.  GSTM1 and GSTP1 gene variants and the effect of air pollutants on lung function measures in South African children.  Am J Ind Med. 2012 Jan 6. doi: 10.1002/ajim.22012. [Epub ahead of print]

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33.  van den Hooven EH, de Kluizenaar Y, Pierik FH, Hofman A, van Ratingen SW, Zandveld PY, et al. 2012. Chronic Air Pollution Exposure during Pregnancy and Maternal and Fetal C-reactive Protein Levels. The Generation R Study. Environ Health Perspect :-.

34.  Manikkam M, Guerrero-Bosagna C, Tracey R, Haque MM, Skinner MK (2012) Transgenerational Actions of Environmental Compounds on Reproductive Disease and Identification of Epigenetic Biomarkers of Ancestral Exposures. PLoS ONE 7(2): e31901. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0031901

35.  Herbstman JB, Tang D, Zhu D, Qu L, Sjödin A, Li Z, et al. 2012. Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Benzo[a]pyrene–DNA Adducts, and Genomic DNA Methylation in Cord Blood. Environ Health Perspect 120:733-738.

36.  Janssen BG, Munters E, Pieters N, Smeets K, Cox B, Cuypers A, et al. 2012. Placental Mitochondrial DNA Content and Particulate Air Pollution During in Utero Life. Environ Health Perspect :-.

37.  Huang HB, Lai CH, Chen GW, Lin YY, Jaakkola JJ, Liou SH, Wang SL.  Traffic-related air pollution and DNA damage: a longitudinal study in taiwanese traffic conductors.  PLoS One. 2012;7(5):e37412. Epub 2012 May 21.

38.  Orjuela M,  Liu X, et al.   Urinary napthol metabolites and chromosomal aberrations in 5 yr old children. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, May 9, 2012 DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0214

39.  Fustinoni S, Rossella F, Polledri E, Bollati V, Campo L, Byun HM, Agnello L, Consonni D, Pesatori AC, Baccarelli A, Bertazzi PA.  Global DNA methylation and low-level exposure to benzene.  Med Lav. 2012 Mar-Apr;103(2):84-95.

40.   Madrigano J, Baccarelli A, Mittleman MA, Sparrow D, Spiro A 3rd, Vokonas PS, Cantone L, Kubzansky L, Schwartz J.  Air Pollution and DNA Methylation: Interaction by Psychological Factors in the VA Normative Aging Study.  Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jul 12. [Epub ahead of print]

41.  Hou L, Wang S, Dou C, Zhang X, Yu Y, Zheng Y, Avula U, Hoxha M, Díaz A, McCracken J, Barretta F, Marinelli B, Bertazzi PA, Schwartz J, Baccarelli AA.  Air pollution exposure and telomere lengyth in highly exposed subjects in Beijing, China: A repeated-measure study.  Environ Int. 2012 Aug 4;48C:71-77. [Epub ahead of print]

42.  Tillett T 2012. Potential Mechanism for PM10 Effects on Birth Outcomes: In Utero Exposure Linked to Mitochondrial DNA Damage. Environ Health Perspect 120:a363-a363.

43.  Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP, Spengler JD, Mroz E, Stigter L, Flak E, Majewska R, Klimaszewska-Rembiasz M, Jacek R.  Intrauterine exposure to fine particulate matter as a risk factor for increased susceptibility to acute broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood.  Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Jan 16. pii: S1438-4639(12)00150-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2012.12.014. [Epub ahead of print]

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45.  Hammond SK, Lurmann F, Shaw GM.   The Association of Ambient Air Pollution and Traffic Exposures With Selected Congenital Anomalies in the San Joaquin Valley of California.  Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Mar 28. [Epub ahead of print]

46.  Hou L, Zhang X, Dioni L, Barretta F, Dou C, Zheng Y, Hoxha M, Bertazzi PA, Schwartz J, Wu S, Wang S, Baccarelli AA.  Inhalable particulate matter and mitochondrial DNA copy number in highly exposed individuals in Beijing, China: a repeated-measure study.  Part Fibre Toxicol. 2013 Apr 29;10(1):17. [Epub ahead of print]

47.  Koehler C, Thielen S, Ginzkey C, Hackenberg S, Scherzed A, Burghartz M, Paulus M, Hagen R, Kleinsasser NH.  Nitrogen dioxide is genotoxic in urban concentrations.  Inhal Toxicol. 2013 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]

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62. XU DQ, ZHANG W. Monitoring of Pollution of Air Fine Particles (PM2.5) and Study on Their Genetic Toxicity

Current Opinion in Pediatrics:  April 2009 – Volume 21 – Issue 2 – p 243-251  doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32832925cc  Therapeutics and toxicology: Edited by Robert O. Wright

Epigenetics and environmental chemicals.  Baccarelli, Andrea; Bollati, Valentina



4.  Pollution and the Lung

 * Air pollution permanently inhibits lung growth in children.

 *  Brief exposure to ozone and particulate matter reduce lung function even in young healthy adults and the reduction can last for a week after the pollution exposure is over. 

 * Air pollution causes lung cancer.

 *  Long term ozone exposure causes an increase in overall mortality in addition to that from particulate matter.  Most of the mortality is respiratory. 

 * Air pollution exacerbates virtually all pulmonary diseases and likely plays a causative role in reactive airways disease.

 * Air pollution is associated with increased rates of hospitalization and death from respiratory diseases from neonates to the elderly.

 *  The correlation between the above health outcomes and ozone  are still found at concentrations between one half and one third the current EPA  NAAQS


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48.   Lin S, Jones R, Pantea C, Ozkaynak H, Rao ST, Hwang SA, Garcia VC.  Impact of NO(x) emissions reduction policy on hospitalizations for respiratory disease in New York State.  J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 Jul 25. doi: 10.1038/jes.2012.69. [Epub ahead of print]

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5.  Pollution and Birth Outcomes

 * Air pollution causes morphologic changes in the placenta, inhibiting blood transfer to the fetus

* Pregnant women exposed to more air pollution have multiple adverse pregnancy outcomes including higher blood pressure, higher rates of pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation, premature births, low birth wt. syndrome and neonates with smaller head circumference

*Air pollution is associated with higher rates of birth defects including neural tube and cardiac birth defects



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9.  Hansen C, Barnett A, Prichard G.  The Effect of Ambient Air Pollution during Early Pregancy on Fetal Ultrasound Measurements during Mid-Pregnancy.  Environ Health Persp Vol. 116, Number 3, March 2008

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12.  Vrijheid M, Martinez D, Manzanares S, Dadvand P, Schembari A, Rankin J, Nieuwenhuijsen M.  Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Dec 3. [Epub ahead of print]  Ambient Air Pollution and Risk of Congenital Anomalies: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

13.  Dadvand P, Rankin J, Rushton S, Pless-Mulloli T.  Ambient air pollution and congenital heart disease; a register-based study.  Environ Res. 2011 Feb 15. [Epub ahead of print]

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16.  Lee PC, Talbott EO, Roberts JM, Catov JM, Sharma RK, Ritz B. Particulate Air Pollution Exposure and C-reactive Protein During Early Pregnancy.  Epidemiology. 2011 Apr 21. [Epub ahead of print]

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18.  Salihu HM, August EM, Mbah AK, Alio AP, de Cuba R 2nd, Jaward FM, Berry EL.  Effectiveness of a Federal Healthy Start Program in Reducing the Impact of Particulate Air Pollutants on Feto-Infant Morbidity Outcomes.  Matern Child Health J. 2011 Jul 17. [Epub ahead of print]

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22.  Pereira G, Nassar N, Cook A, Bow C.  Traffic emissions are associated with reduced fetal growth in areas of Perth, Western Australia: an application of the AusRoads dispersion model.  Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health.  Volume 35, Issue 5, pages 451–458, October 2011

23.  Wilhelm  M, Ghosh JK,  Su J, Cockburn M, Jerrett M, Ritz B.  Traffic-related air toxics and preterm birth: a population-based case-control study in Los Angeles County, California.  Environmental Health 2011, 10:89 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-10-89

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36.   Proietti E, Röösli M, Frey U, Latzin P.  Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Neonatal Outcome: A Review.  J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv. 2012 Aug 2. [Epub ahead of print]

37.  Pereira G, Cook AG, Haggar F, Bower C, Nassar N.  Locally derived traffic-related air pollution and fetal growth restriction: a retrospective cohort study.  Occup Environ Med. 2012 Jul 31. [Epub ahead of print]

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40.  van den Hooven EH, Pierik FH, de Kluizenaar Y, Hofman A, van Ratingen SW, Zandveld PY, et al. 2012. Air Pollution Exposure and Markers of Placental Growth and Function: The Generation R Study. Environ Health Perspect :-.

41.  Bell ML, Belanger K, Ebisu K, Gent JF, Leaderer BP.  Relationship between birth weight and exposure to airborne fine particulate potassium and titanium during gestation.  Environ Res. 2012 Jun 15. [Epub ahead of print]

42.    Shah PS, Balkhair T.  Air pollution and birth outcomes: a systematic review.  Knowledge Synthesis Group on Determinants of Preterm/LBW births. Collaborators:  Environ Int. 2011 Feb;37(2):498-516. Epub 2010 Nov 26.

43.  Shah PS, Ohlsson A, Shah V, Murphy KE, McDonald SD, Hutton E, Newburn-Cook C, Frick C, Scott F, Allen V, Beyene J, Stieb DM, Chen L, Eshoul M, Judek S.  Ambient air pollution, birth weight and preterm birth: A systematic review and meta-analysis.   Environ Res. 2012 Jun 20. [Epub ahead of print].

44.  Parker JD, Rich DQ, Glinianaia SV, Leem JH, Wartenberg D, Bell ML, Bonzini M, Brauer M, Darrow L, Gehring U, Gouveia N, Grillo P, Ha E, van den Hooven EH, Jalaludin B, Jesdale BM, Lepeule J, Morello-Frosch R, Morgan GG, Slama R, Pierik FH, Pesatori AC, Sathyanarayana S, Seo J, Strickland M, Tamburic L, Woodruff TJ.  The International Collaboration on Air Pollution and Pregnancy Outcomes: initial results.   Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jul;119(7):1023-8. Epub 2011 Feb 9.

45.  Chang HH, Reich BJ, Miranda ML.  Time-to-event analysis of fine particle air pollution and preterm birth: results from North Carolina, 2001-2005.   Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Jan 15;175(2):91-8. Epub 2011 Dec 13.

46.   Kessler R 2012. Followup in Southern California: Decreased Birth Weight following Prenatal Wildfire Smoke Exposure. Environ Health Perspect 120:a362-a362.

47.  Kloog, I, SJ Melly, WL Ridgway, BA Coull and J Schwartz. 2012. Using new satellite based exposure methods to study the association between pregnancy pm2.5 exposure, premature birth and birth weight in Massachusetts. Environmental Health

48.  Padula AM, Mortimer K, Hubbard A, Lurmann F, Jerrett M, Tager IB.  Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution During Pregnancy and Term Low Birth Weight: Estimation of Causal Associations in a Semiparametric Model.  Am J Epidemiol. 2012 Oct 7. [Epub ahead of print]

49.  Backes CH, Nelin T, Gorr MW, Wold LE.  Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution: How Bad Is It?  Toxicol Lett. 2012 Nov 16. pii: S0378-4274(12)01380-X. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2012.11.007. [Epub ahead of print]

50.  Geer LA, Weedon J, Bell ML.  Ambient air pollution and term birth weight in Texas from 1998 to 2004.  J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2012 Nov;62(11):1285-95.

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63. Candela S, Ranzi A, Bonvicini L, Baldacchini F, Marzaroli P, Evangelista A, Luberto F, Carretta E, Angelini P, Sterrantino AF, Broccoli S, Cordioli M, Ancona C, Forastiere F. Air pollution from incinerators and reproductive outcomes: a multisite study. Epidemiology. 2013 Nov;24(6):863-70. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e3182a712f1.

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65. Wylie BJ, Coull BA, Hamer DH, Singh MP, Jack D, Yeboah-Antwi K, Sabin L, Singh N, Macleod WB. Impact of biomass fuels on pregnancy outcomes in central East India. Environ Health. 2014 Jan 9;13(1):1. [Epub ahead of print]

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Air Pollution and Cancer

*Air pollution is associated with higher rates of breast, lung, prostate, cervical, brain, and stomach cancer, and childhood leukemia. Pre-natal pollution exposure is associated with increased rates of multiple childhood cancers. Air pollution is associated with decreased survival in breast cancer patients.
1. Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen Z, Hvidberg M, Jensen SS, Ketzel M, Sørensen M, Loft S, Overvad K, Tjønneland A. Lung Cancer Incidence and Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution from Traffic. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Jan 12. [Epub ahead of print]

2. Crouse DL, Goldberg MS, Ross NA, Chen H, Labrèche F 2010. Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Is Associated with Exposure to Traffic-Related Air Pollution in Montreal, Canada: A Case–Control Study. Environ Health Perspect 118:1578-1583. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002221

3. Pearson RL, Wachtel H, Ebi KL. Distance-weighted traffic density in proximity to a home is a risk factor for leukemia and other childhood cancers. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 50(2):175-180.

4. Weng HH, Tsai SS, Chen CC, Chiu HF, Wu TN, Yang CYJ. Childhood leukemia development and correlation with traffic air pollution in Taiwan using nitrogen dioxide as an air pollutant marker. Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(7):434-8.

5. Langholz B, et al.; Traffic density and the risk of childhood leukemia in a Los Angeles case-control study. Ann. Epi. 2002 Oct; 12(7):482-7.

6. Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, Hvidberg M, Jensen SS, Ketzel M, Sørensen M, Hansen J, Loft S, Overvad K, Tjønneland A. Air pollution from traffic and cancer incidence: a Danish cohort study. Environ Health. 2011 Jul 19;10:67. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-10-67.

7. Luo J, Margolis K, Wactawski-Wende J, et al. Association of active and passive smoking with risk of breast cancer among postmenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. BMJ 2011; 342:d1016

8. Amigou A, Sermage-Faure C, Orsi L, Leverger G, Baruchel A, Bertrand Y, et al. 2011. Road Traffic and Childhood Leukemia: The ESCALE Study (SFCE). Environ Health Perspect 119:566-572. doi:10.1289/ehp.1002429

9. Weng HH, Tsai SS, Chiu HF, Wu TN, Yang CY. Childhood leukemia and traffic air pollution in Taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator.J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2009;72(2):83-7. doi: 10.1080/15287390802477338.

10. Chiu HF, Tsai SS, Chen PS, Liao YH, Liou SH, Wu TN, Yang CY. Traffic air pollution and risk of death from gastric cancer in taiwan: petrol station density as an indicator of air pollutant exposure. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2011 Sep 15;74(18):1215-24.

11. Grant WB. Air pollution in relation to U.S. cancer mortality rates: an ecological study; likely role of carbonaceous aerosols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anticancer Res. 2009 Sep;29(9):3537-45.

12. Turner MC, Krewski D, Pope Iii CA, Chen Y, Gapstur SM, Thun MJ. Long-Term Ambient Fine Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Lung Cancer in a Large Cohort of Never Smokers. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Oct 6. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 21980033.

13. Hung LJ, Chan TF, Wu CH, Chiu HF, Yang CY. Traffic Air Pollution and Risk of Death from Ovarian Cancer in Taiwan: Fine Particulate Matter (PM(2.5)) as a Proxy Marker. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2012 Feb 1;75(3):174-82.

14. Silverman DT, Samanic CM, Lubin JH, et al. The diesel exhaust in miners study: a nested case-control study of lung cancer and diesel exhaust. J Natl Cancer Inst. March 2, 2012. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs034.

15. Attfield MD, Schlieff PL, Lubin JH, et al. The diesel exhaust in miners study: a cohort mortality study with emphasis on lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. March 2, 2012. doi:10.1093/jnci/djs035.

16. Vinceti M, Rothman KJ, Crespi CM, Sterni A, Cherubini A, Guerra L, Maffeis G, Ferretti E, Fabbi S, Teggi S, Consonni D, De Girolamo G, Meggiato A, Palazzi G, Paolucci P, Malagoli C. Leukemia risk in children exposed to benzene and PM(10) from vehicular traffic: a case-control study in an Italian population. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012 Aug 15. [Epub ahead of print]

17. Yorifuji T, Kashima S, Tsuda T, Ishikawa-Takata K, Ohta T, Tsuruta KI, Doi H. Long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution and the risk of death from hemorrhagic stroke and lung cancer in Shizuoka, Japan. Sci Total Environ. 2012 Nov 30;443C:397-402. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.10.088. [Epub ahead of print]

18. Parent ME, Goldberg MS, Crouse DL, Ross NA, Chen H, Valois MF, Liautaud A. Traffic-related air pollution and prostate cancer risk: a case-control study in Montreal, Canada. Occup Environ Med. 2013 Mar 26. [Epub ahead of print]

19. Williams ES, Mahler B, Van Metre P. Cancer Risk from Incidental Ingestion Exposures to PAHs Associated with Coal-Tar-Sealed Pavement. Environmental Science & Technology, 2013; 47 (2): 1101 DOI: 10.1021/es303371t

20. Prenatal air pollution associated higher rates of retinoblastomas, ALL, and germ cell tumors.–media/aacr-in-the-news.aspx?d=3062

21. Hu H, Dailey AB, Kan H, Xu X. The effect of atmospheric particulate matter on survival of breast cancer among US females. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2013 Apr 17. [Epub ahead of print]

22. Ghosh JK, Heck JE, Cockburn M, Su J, Jerrett M, Ritz B. Prenatal Exposure to Traffic-related Air Pollution and Risk of Early Childhood Cancers. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Aug 28. [Epub ahead of print]

23. Bulka C, et al. Residence Proximity to Benzene Release Sites Is Associated With Increased Incidence of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Cancer. Article first published online: 29 JUL 2013. DOI: 10.1002/cncr.28083

24. Ho CK, Peng CY, Yang CY. Traffic air pollution and risk of death from bladder cancer in Taiwan using petrol station density as a pollutant indicator. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2010;73(1):23-32. doi: 10.1080/15287390903248869.

25. Liu CC, Chen CC, Wu TN, Yang CY. Association of brain cancer with residential exposure to petrochemical air pollution in Taiwan. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(5):310-4. doi: 10.1080/15287390701738491.


7.  Pollution and Miscellaneous Health Consequences

*Type II diabetes, immune suppression, inflammatory bowel disease, bacterial infections, lupus, juvenile arthritis, infant mortality, sleep apnea, obesity and suicide are elevated in populations exposed to more air pollution.

*Air pollution causes systemic oxidative stress, endothelial cell death, cytotoxicity, macrophage infiltration, and increases lipid deposition. Particulate matter penetrates intracellular structures.

* Air pollution accelerates the aging process and shortens the lengths of telomeres.

* Wood smoke is uniquely toxic

*Even short term air pollution decreases fertility



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Written on December 17th, 2011

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